**Ratio strength calculation****s** are frequently required in pharmaceutical calculations. Initially, they can be tricky and time-consuming to solve, but with the right tools at your disposal they become much easier. This is part 2 of our series on how to solve ratio strength calculations, so if you missed the original tutorial and part 1 we recommend starting there before continuing with this post.

In this post you will learn how to solve three NAPLEX type ratio strength calculations questions step-by-step. So, if you want to solve ratio strength calculations questions accurately and with expediency, follow the guide on how to properly analyze these types of problems.

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I'm going to show you how to calculate the amount of solute in a given preparation, given the ratio strength and the volume of the preparation, and we are starting right now.

Hello, this is Dr. Danquah, and if this is your first time here and you would like to learn pharmaceutical calculations, tips, tricks and more, then start by subscribing and clicking the bell so you don't miss anything.

This video is part of a series on ratio strength calculations, so be sure to check the other videos out I would put links in the description and a card should be popping up pretty shortly.

Now, one of the things you should be able to do when it comes to ratio strength is to be able to calculate the amount of a substance when you know the ratio strength and the volume. So I'm going to demonstrate how you do that using three powerful examples. And by the time we are done, you should never get these type of questions wrong. So let's get right to it.

This question says a skin test for fire ant allergy involves the intradermal skin prick of 0.05 mL of 1:1,000,000 (w/v) dilution of fire ant extract. How many micrograms of extract would be administered in this manner?

So here we are required to find the amount in milligrams which will be the amount of solute of the fire and extract and we have been given the ratio strength. So the first thing we want to do is take the definition of ratio strength.

Here, it is 1:1,000,000, so what that means is you have one gram of fire ant extract in a 1,000,000 mL. Now this should be equal to some quantity in grams over the given volume of the preparation.

And here our volume is 0.05 mL. Now, because we want our answer in micrograms. A prudent thing we want to do is to basically convert the grams to micrograms so the conversion states that one gram is equal to a million microgram.

So we can rewrite this ratio as follows. We will say that a million micrograms of fire ant extract is present in a million milliliters. So that's the ratio strength expressed in micrograms. And what that will mean is our quantity that we try to find also the X micrograms over 0.05 mL.

So this is a proportion, which means that units on the left hand side of the equal to sign should be the same as the units on the right hand side, both in the numerator and the denominator.

So we can go ahead and solve for X, which means that X is going to be equal to one million microgram times, 0.05 mL divided by a million milliliters, the milliliters cancel out and the zeroes cancel out. And so now what you end up having is X equals 0.05 micrograms.

Let's take a look at another question which says, in acute hypersensitivity reactions, 0.5 mL of a 1:1000 (w/v) solution of epinephrine may be administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Calculate the milligrams of epinephrine given.

So let's start off by analyzing the question. Here, our goal is to find the amount in milligrams of epinephrine we've been given, the ratio strength, which is 1:1000, and we know the volume of the preparation, which is 0.5 mL.

So we start off by taking the ratio strength, which is 1:1000 and what that means is that you have one gram of epinephrine in a 1000 mL of preparation. And so we want to figure out how many grams will be also present in the 0.5 mL preparation.

Now, since our answer is going to be in milligrams, a prudent step would be to convert the grams directly to milligrams at this stage so that your calculations become really easy.

So the conversion is one gram is equal to a 1000 mg. And so we can substitute that into the ratio and proportion above which would mean that you have a 1000 mg of epinephrine in a 1000 mL of preparation. It would then be equal to some quantity in milligrams over the 0.5 mL.

We can now go ahead and solve for X. So X is going to be equal to a 1000 mg times the 0.5 mL divided by a 1000 mL. The milliliters cancel out and the zeroes also cancel out. And so now what you have is you have X being equal to 0.5 mg.

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Now, let's take a look at another question. Here, you have a prescription which has tetracaine hydrochloride, 0.75%. You have epinephrine hydrochloride, 1:4000. You have cocaine hydrochloride, 3%. You need to add some sodium chloride and then your total preparation is 30 mL.

So now the question says how many milligrams of epinephrine hydrochloride is needed to fill the prescription?

So let's start off by analyzing the question. Our goal here is to calculate the amount in milligrams of epinephrine hydrochloride should be given the ratio strength to be 1:4000, and we have the quantity of preparation to be 30 mL.

So now what we do is we start off with the ratio strength, which is 1:4000, and that will mean that we have one gram of epinephrine hydrochloride in 4000 mL of preparation.

Now, that should be equal to some quantity in grams over the 30 mL. So because our answer is going to be milligrams, it may be a good idea at this point to convert the grams to milligrams, which will make our calculations really easy down the line. So the conversion factor is one gram is a 1000 mg.

So now wherever we have one gram we are going to put a 1000 mg. And so what that will mean is you now have a thousand milligrams of epinephrine hydrochloride and 4000 mL of preparation.

That would also mean that we have some quantity in milligrams divided by 30 mL. So we can now go ahead and solve for X, which is our unknown. So X is going to be equal to 1000 mg times 30 mL divided by 4000 mL. The milliliters cancel out. And so X is going to be equal to 7.5 mg.

So I hope you found this tutorial useful. And if you did like the video and share it, if you have any comments, leave them in the comments below and I will get to them as soon as I see them.

Now if you would like to learn more pharmaceutical calculations, tips, tricks and strategies be sure to subscribe to the channel and click the bell so you don't miss anything. Thank you so much for watching. Enjoy your life. And I'll see you in the next video.

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Knowing **how to solve ratio strength calculations** is an important skill every pharmacy student needs to acquire prior to practicing as a pharmacist. It is one of the common ways a pharmaceutical preparations concentration may be expressed and describes drug concentration in terms of a ratio. Specifically, the drug concentration is defined in terms of one unit of solute contained in a total amount of solution or mixture.

In this blog post, you will learn how to solve three NAPLEX type ratio strength calculations questions. Special emphasis is placed on how to properly analyze ratio strength calculations questions so you can solve them accurately and expeditiously.

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I'm going to show you how to solve ratio strength calculation questions and we are starting right now.

Hello, this is Dr. Danquah and if this is your first time here and you would like to learn pharmaceutical calculations, tips, tricks and more then start by subscribing and clicking the bell so you don't miss anything.

So this tutorial is part of a series on ratio strength calculations, so be sure to check the other videos out I'll put links the description and the card should be showing pretty shortly, but let's get right to it and start by tackling this question.

The question says calculate the amount of drug in grams required to prepare 120 milliliters of a 1:40 antiseptic solution.

Now the first thing we want to do is recall the definition of ratio strength. So our ratio strength here is 1:40. This is a solution. So it actually means you have one gram in 40 milliliters.

And what you want to figure out is how many grams will be required to prepare 120 milliliters. So you can go ahead and solve for our unknown which is x.

So x is equal to one gram times 120 milliliters divided by 40 milliliters and x is going to be equal to 3 grams.

Let's take a look at another example.

This question says how many liters of a 1:1000 solution can be prepared from 25 g of drug substance?

So the first thing we want to do is identify the ratio strength in this question it is 1:1000.

And if you recall from the definition 1:1000 actually means you have one gram of drug in a 1000 milliliters of solution. So we now need to set up a proportion. And what we want to do is we want to prepare some quantity or solution from the 25 grams.

So in this instance, the 25 grams goes in the numerator, and we need to figure out how many milliliters that will give us. So we can go ahead and solve for x.

x is going to be equal to 25 grams times 1000 milliliters divided by one gram. The grams cancel out, and you're going to end up with 25,000 milliliters.

But we don't stop here because the question says how many liters and so the next thing we want to do is do a quick conversion.

So we can say that a 1000 milliliters is available in one liter, the milliliters cancels out, the thousand cancels out and now you have 25 liters.

no time to read the article now?

So let's take a look at another question.

This question says how many milliliters of liquefied phenol should be used in compounding the following prescription?

So, we have a prescription with liquefied phenol 1:40 and then we're making a total preparation of 140 milliliters.

So the first thing we want to do is start off with the ratio strength which is 1:40 and that will actually mean that you have one milliliter of liquid phenol in 40 milliliters of preparation.

We want to figure out how many milliliters we will need for the total preparation which will be 140 milliliters.

And so we can solve for x, x is going to be equal to one milliliter times 140 milliliters divided by 40 milliliters, one set of milliliters cancels out and that's going to be equal to 3.5 milliliters.

So I hope you found this tutorial useful. If you have any questions, put them in the comments and I will address them as soon as I see them. And also if you want to learn more pharmaceutical calculations, tips and tricks, be sure to subscribe so you don't miss anything. Thank you so much for watching. Enjoy your life and I will see you next time.

Do you have any questions or strategies on how to solve ratio strength calculations? Share them in the comments box below.

Ratio strength is one of the ways of expressing concentration and describes drug concentration in terms of a ratio. Here, concentration is defined in terms of one unit of solute contained in a total amount of solution or mixture. As a pharmacy student you should be proficient in ratio strength calculations.

In this blog post, I will show you how to master ratio strength calculations by providing a brief review of the different ways of expressing concentration, defining what ratio strength is and discussing how ratio strength should be interpreted.

I will also demonstrate how to convert percent strength to ratio strength and vice-versa, and show you how to calculate the ratio strength of a pharmaceutical preparation using three NAPLEX type example problems.

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I'm going to show you how to master ratio strength calculations and we are starting right now.

Hello, this is Dr. Danquah and if this is your first time here and you would like to learn pharmaceutical calculations, tips, tricks and more then start by subscribing and clicking the bell so you don't miss anything.

So let's get right to it. This video is the first in a series on ratio strength calculations, so be sure to check the other videos when they do come out. But for this particular tutorial, what we're going to focus on is accomplishing four major things.

The first thing is to be able to define what ratio strength is. The second thing is to interpret the ratio strength as it pertains to weight-in-volume, volume-in-volume and weight-in-weight.

We also want to be able to convert percent strength to ratio strength and vice versa and the last thing we want to accomplish in this particular tutorial is to be able to calculate the ratio strength of a pharmaceutical preparation.

But before we go ahead and dive deep into ratio strength, particularly, I just need to give some context. And that has to do with the ways in which we express concentration. So generally speaking, when you have a preparation, you're going to have a solute and a diluent.

And so the solute could be like the active pharmaceutical ingredient an API, and your diluent could be maybe a solvent like water, or a base like petrolatum. But the whole idea is at some point in time, you should be able to describe in terms of concentration, the amount of your solute in the total preparation, and that's where we have various ways of expressing concentration.

Now there are four major ones that are used very frequently. The first one is percentage concentration. And I do have an excellent video on percentage concentration. So I'll put a link in the description and the card will come up pretty shortly. And then also you have ratio strength, you have parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb).

So the question becomes why are there different ways of expressing concentration? And the short answer to that has to do with the notion that pharmaceutical preparations typically come in different strengths and so you need an elegant way to describe how concentrated preparation is and you want to do it in such a way that you can easily convey that information to another professional so that they can either go ahead and compound that preparation or dispense it.

So the next question that comes up is when do you use the different ways of expressing concentration?

So typically, what happens is if you have a fairly concentrated preparation, a fairly strong preparation, you will use percentage concentration because this lets you know the amount in grams out of 100 milliliters or hundred grams or whatever the units may be.

So as your solution gets more diluted, if you have a weak solution, for example, then you end up using the ratio strength because at that point in time using the percentage concentration approach becomes unwieldly. Okay, so you end up with so many zeros and the likelihood of making an error actually skyrockets.

Now if you have a very dilute preparation, then you end up using parts per million (ppm), which would be the amount in grams out of a million. Or if you have a really, really dilute preparation, you use parts per billion (ppb), so that will be the amount in grams out of a billion.

Okay, so let's look at a few examples just to illustrate that point. And then we can jump into the ratio strength calculations.

So the example of a strong preparation will be one that has maybe 2% concentration, so that's 2%. The same concentration expressed as a ratio strength to be 1:250. But if you're going to express that in ppm, that will be 20,000 ppm and then you have 20 million ppb. So as you can tell, it is more elegant to use 2% instead of 20 million ppb, okay?

Now if you had a weaker solution, such as 1:20,000, then if you're going to express that as a percentage concentration, that would be 0.005. And now you are beginning to have too many zeros and so the likelihood that you may miss one or you may put it down wrong just increases. And so it's much easier to put down 1:20,000 or perhaps 50 ppm, but definitely not 50,000 ppb.

And now, if you have a very dilute preparation, for example, 1 ppm or one part per million, then if you are going to express that as a percentage concentration, you have 0.001 or you have one is to 1 million as a ratio strength or 1000 ppb.

So clearly, depending on the concentration, one of these ways of expressing concentration is more suitable because it's easier to put down and there's less likelihood that you make an error in writing the concentration down on error in the compounder understanding what is written.

So, that was to give you a quick overview of the ways of expressing concentration. So that we have a better understanding of how ratio strength fits into the spectrum of the different ways in which you can express concentration of your preparations.

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But what exactly is ratio strength? Ratio strength describes the drug concentration in terms of a ratio. So, what that means is, you have one unit of solute contained in the total amount of preparation and so normally your ratio strength is written as one is to something. For example, you have 1:2,000 depending on whether you have a weight-in-weight, volume-in-volume or weight-in-volume scenario, you would interpret this accordingly.

Okay, so for 1:2000 when you have a weight-in-volume situation that would mean that you have one gram of solute in 2000 milliliters of preparation. Then if you have a volume-in-volume scenario, the one would refer to one milliliter of solute in 2000 milliliters of preparation It could also be one liter of solute in 2000 liters of preparation, or one microliter of solute in 2000 microliters of preparation. So the units of volume for the solute and the preparation should be consistent. If you had the weight-in-weight scenario here is going to be one gram of your constituent or your solute in 2000 grams of mixture.

Now, it's important to understand that the ratio strength is always going to be one is to something. So if you had two grams of solute in 800 milliliters of preparation, what you don't want to do is to say 2:800, that will not be correct, rather it is going to be 1:400. So you always reduce the ratio in such a way that you have one unit of the solute to a certain quantity of your preparation.

So we know what the ratio strength is and we know how to interpret the information. The next thing we should be able to do is convert percentage strength to ratio strength. And if you need a review on what percentage strengths or percentage concentrations are, check out our previous video, I'll put a link to that in the description and I'll put it in the cards which should show pretty soon.

All right, so here we have an example which says Express 0.02% as a ratio strength.

Now the first thing we should be able to do is put the 0.02% in terms of a ratio and that will be 0.02 grams in 100 ml. So that'll be 0.02 grams divided by 100 milliliters and now we need to set up a proportion.

So that should be equal to one gram over x milliliters because our ratio is going to be one is to something.

All right, so we solve for x and we have one gram times 100 milliliters divided by 0.02 and we have 5000 milliliters and so the ratio strength would actually be 1:5000. So that's how you want to convert percentage strength to ratio strength.

So now that we can convert percentage strength to ratio strength, we should also be able to go in the other direction and convert ratio strength to percentage strength.

In this example, it says what is the percentage strength of a 1:500 zinc oxide ointment?

So here because you have an ointment, we know it is going to be on a weight by weight basis, alright. So we take the definition of ratio strength for the weight-in-weight scenario.

And that would be one gram of zinc oxide divided by 500 grams of preparation. So that would be the ratio. And now we set up a proportion. So for percentage strength, it's some quantity in grams out of 100 grams.

So that's why the proportion is set up that way. So we solve for x, x equals one gram times 100 grams divided by 500 grams. And so now that is equal to 0.2. And basically, that's our percentage strength. So the 1:500 is equivalent to 0.2%.

So the next thing we want to accomplish in this tutorial is to be able to calculate the ratio strength of a given pharmaceutical preparation.

And so in this example, it says an 80 mL solution contains 40 milligrams of drug. Express the concentration as a ratio of strength.

And so we need to bring to mind the interpretation of ratio strength. And if we did that, in this example, we need to have eventually one gram of drug to some quantity in milliliters of the total preparation.

What that will mean is a prudent thing to do would be to convert the 40 milligrams to grams. All right, so we start off with the idea that 1000 milligrams is one gram. And so how do we convert the 40 milligrams.

We have thousand milligrams divided by one gram and that should be equal to 40 milligrams divided by x grams. So we go ahead and solve for x, and x will be equal to 40 milligrams times one gram divided by 1000 grams and that gives us 0.04 grams.

So we go ahead and set up a ratio where you have 0.04 grams of drug divided by 80 milliliters of solution, okay, so 0.04 grams of drug divided by 80 milliliters of solution and that should be equal to one gram divided by y milliliters.

So the one gram represents the one unit of solute or one unit of drug, and we need to figure out what the total volume of the preparation will be accordingly.

So we solve for y, and y equals one gram times 80 milliliters divided by 0.04 grams, and that gives us 2000 milliliters. And so the ratio strength of this preparation is going to be 1:2000.

So if you found this video useful, be sure to like it, share it and subscribe to the channel. And if you have any questions, put them in the comments or send me an email at info@rxcalculations.com and I will see you in the next video.

Do you have any questions or strategies on how to master ratio strength calculations? Share them in the comments box below.

How to determine volume of solution to infuse is an important type of intravenous (IV) flow rate calculations question that you should know how to solve. In this blog post, I am going to use two NAPLEX type iv flow rate calculations questions to show you how to solve calculations questions where you have to determine the volume of solution to infuse when you have been given the iv flow rate, time and drop factor.

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I'm going to show you **how to determine the volume of solution** to be infused given the IV flow rate, the time and the calibration factor and we are starting right now.

Hello, this is Dr. Danquah and if this is your first time here and you'd like to learn pharmaceutical calculations, tips, tricks and more then start by subscribing, and clicking the bell so you don't miss anything.

So this video is part of a series on IV flow rate calculations. Be sure to check the other videos out. I'll put links in the description and a card with a playlist should be coming up pretty shortly.

So let's take a look at the first question which says a patient is receiving azithromycin intravenously at a rate of 16 gtt/min. How much solution is infused in 8 hours if the infusion set delivers 20 gtt/mL. Round to the nearest whole number. Do not Including units.

Now let's start by analyzing the question. Our goal is to determine how much fluid is given to the patient. And what we've been given is the IV flow rate in drops per minute, we have the time of infusion, which is eight hours, and we have the calibration or drop factor.

And so the strategy will be to start off with the IV flow rate. So we have 16 drops per minute and our first goal is to basically get rid of the minutes in the denominator. Okay, so we need that time quantity. And we see we have eight hours in the question. So we multiply this by eight hours.

Now since we are using dimensional analysis, the way it works is the units in the numerator should be the same as the units in the denominator for them to cancel out.

So as we see we have hours in the numerator and minutes in the denominator so that will not work. Which means we need to first convert the hours to minutes

So we make use of the conversion factor that 60 minutes, make one hour, and now the hour can cancel out, and the minutes can also cancel out.

So now we are in drops. Okay. So what you want to do next is to get rid of the drops from the numerator, and so we need some quantity with a drop component and that's where the calibration factor becomes pertinent.

So we'll take the calibration factor, and because we want volume, we will flip it and so end up saying that one milliliter contains 20 drops. So now the drops can cancel out, and you are left with volume term milliliters.

And so the next step will be to take all the terms in the numerator. So we'll have 16 times eight times 60 times 1 milliliter, and we'll divide that by everything in the denominator, so have 1 times 20. And if you go ahead and do the Math, we end up with 384.

Download the PDF version for future reference.

Let's take a look at another question. This one says a patient is receiving a solution intravenously at a rate of 22 gtt/min. How much solution is infused in 4 hours if the infusion set delivers 25 gtt/mL? Round to the nearest tenth. Do not include units.

So let's start off by analyzing this question. Our goal is to determine the volume of fluid that is infused.

We've been given the IV flow rate, we've been given the time that is being infused for and we have also the calibration or drop factor.

And so the strategy will be to start off with the IV flow rate. And so what that will look like is you have your 22 drops per minute. And now we need to get rid of the minute term from the denominator.

So we need the term in the question as the time component. And that will be the four hours, so we multiply this by four hours.

Now for the dimensional analysis to work, you need to have the same units, the numerator and the denominator for it to cancel out.

So now we have hours and minutes. And that doesn't match. So we need to convert the hours to minutes. Okay.

So we now say that 60 minutes, make an hour. And now the hour can cancel out and the minutes can cancel out.

And so now you are in drops, okay. And so we need to get rid of the drops from the numerator. So we need the term or a quantity that has drops in it, and that's where the calibration or drop factor will become important.

And because we're looking for volume, we're going to flip the drop factor. And so we end up saying that one milliliter contains 25 drops, and the drops cancel out, and now you are left with milliliters.

And so the next step would be to take all the terms in the numerator and multiply them out.

So that will be 22 times 4 times 60 times 1 milliliter, and then we'll divide that by everything in the denominator, that will be 1 times 25. And if you do the math, you end up with 211.2.

Do you have any questions or strategies on how to determine volume of solution to infuse? Share them in the comments box below.

Knowing **how to calculate infusion time** is extremely important when administering intravenous (IV) infusions. In this blog post, I use two NAPLEX type IV flow rate calculations questions to show you how to calculate infusion time given the drop factor and the IV flow rate.

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I'm going to show you how to calculate infusion time when you know the IV flow rate and the calibration factor. And we are starting right now.

Hello, this is Dr. Danquah and if this is your first time here and you'd like to learn pharmaceutical calculation, tips, tricks and more, then start by subscribing and clicking the bell so you don't miss anything.

So in this tutorial, I'm going to solve two questions and it's part of a series on IV flow rate calculations. If you want to check out the other videos, I'll put links in the description and cards should be showing up pretty shortly.

So let's take a look at the first question which reads a 750 mL bag of D5W is to be infused at 70 gtt/min using a 50 gtt/mL administration set. How long would the infusion take in hours? Round the answer to the nearest tenth. Do not include units.

So let's start by analyzing the question. The goal here is to determine the infusion time how long it is going to take, we've also been given three additional parameters.

We've been given the volume of the bag which is being infused, we've also been given the IV flow rate, and then we've been given the calibration or drop factor.

So there are number of ways we can proceed but the first thing we want to do is to actually take the volume of the bag that is being infused.

So we have 750 milliliters of D5W which is going to be given to the patient and to get rid of the milliliter unit, we want to use the calibration factor. Okay, so we multiply this by 50 drops per milliliter.

And the reason we're doing that is because in dimensional analysis, the only way you can cancel out units is if you have one in the numerator and the same unit in the denominator. Okay, so in this example, the milliliters can cancel out and you are now in drops.

So our next task is to get rid of the drops so that we have a quantity that gives us time. Okay? So if we look at the last term we have the flow rate, which is in drops per minute, but we want to flip that here.

So what we will say is one minute, every minute, you're able to give 70 drops. So now that you have the drop term in the numerator and one in the denominator, you can cancel the drop term out, and you're left with units of time in minutes.

And we could stop here if that was what the question was asking for time in minutes. But since the question is saying how many hours we need to do an additional step, and we make use of the conversion factor, that 60 minutes, make an hour. So the minutes now cancel out, and you're left with the time quantity in hours.

The next thing that we want to do is we want to take all the terms the numerator, which would be 750 times the 50 times one times one hour and we divide that by all the quantities in the denominator. So that would be 70 times 60.

And when we do the math, that should give us 8.93 hours, but notice that the question is saying round to the nearest tenth. So that will mean that our answer will be 8.9.

Download the PDF version for future reference.

So now let's take a look at another example. And this question says a 1000 mL bag of lactated NS is ordered to be infused in a patient undergoing septic hypotensive emergency at a rate of 180 gtt/min using a 60 gtt/mL administration set. How many hours would it take to infuse this amount of fluid? Round to the nearest tenth. Do not include units.

So let's take a moment to analyze the question. What are we looking for? We're looking for time. It says how many hours will it take to infuse this amount of fluid. So that's infusion time.

The other quantities that we have be given is the volume of the bag that's 1000 ml of lactated normal saline, we have the IV flow rate and we have the calibration factor also known as the drop factor.

So what we want to do is to start off with the volume of the bag, we have 1000 milliliters and we need to get rid of this milliliter term. And so what we need is some quantity that has units per ml and if you look at information we've been given, the calibration factor basically gives us that.

Okay, so we have 60 drops per milliliter and we can now cancel out the milliliter term because we have milliliters in the numerator and the milliliter term in the denominator. So those can cancel out. And we are now in drops.

So to get rid of the drops, we need a quantity that has the drop element. And also we want to get the time so we need something that has time as well. And that's where the IV flow rate would actually be pertinent, okay.

But what you want to do is want to flip it. So we'll multiply this by one minute, because in every minute, you have 180 drops.

And so this drop term can cancel out. And we're now left with time in minutes, but the question was asking how many hours?

So what you want to do now is to use the conversion factor that says 60 minutes, make up one hour, and so the minutes can now cancel out.

And so the next thing that we can do is we take all the terms the numerator, which would be 1000 times 60 times one times One hour, and you divide that by the quantities in the denominator.

So you have 180 times 60. And if you go ahead and do the math, you end up with 5.56 hours, but we don't stop there because the question says round to the nearest tenth, do not include units and so we'll have 5.6.

Do you have any questions or strategies on how to calculate infusion rate? Share them in the comments box below.

Dimensional analysis is a powerful way of solving **IV flow rate **calculations and it is the method I recommend when I teach the topic to students.

In this blog post, I show you how to quickly solve two NAPLEX type IV flow rate calculations questions using dimensional analysis. I also demonstrate how to properly analyze iv flow rate calculations questions so you can solve them accurately and expeditiously.

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I'm going to show you how to solve two interesting IV flow rate calculation questions using dimensional analysis. And we are starting right now.

Hello, this is Dr. Danquah. I already did a video on IV flow rate calculations. So if you need a thorough review, just check the video I'll put a link in the description and a card should be showing up pretty soon.

But in this video, we are going to take a look at two interesting IV flow rate calculation questions.

And the first one says dobutamine is packaged as 2 g in 250 milliliters of D5W. A 138 lb patient is to receive a dose of 10 micrograms per kg per minute, how many mL/h should be administered?

So let's start by really analyzing this question. So our target is to determine the flow rate in milliliters per hour. And we've been given some kind of a rate, you know, it's 10 micrograms per kg per minute, we have the volume that is being infused, which is 250 milliliters. And we know the amount of the dobutamine in the 250 milliliter bag, that is two grams, and we have the patient's weight.

The first question that I normally get is, do we need all the information in the question? Yes, in this particular example, we will need to use all the information or the numbers that have been provided. But let's see how that works.

So the real strategy will be to start off with the 10 micrograms per kilogram minute, and this kilogram is basically a normalized dose with respect to the patient's weight.

So we can start off by taking care of the kilograms in the denominator by using the weight so we know notice from the question that the patient is 138 pounds, but the pounds can't get rid of the kilograms it cannot, right, so we need to convert this pounds to kilograms.

We take the conversion that 2.2 pounds is one kilogram and so now we can cancel the pounds.

The way it works is, for dimension analysis, you need to have the unit in the numerator and the same in the denominator, so the pounds can cancel out and the kilograms can also cancel out.

So as it stands now, you are in micrograms per minute, but we want to end up in milliliters per hour. So one of the things that we could do is we could convert the minutes to hours, and so we'll have 60 minutes is what you would need to make an hour. Okay, so now the minutes can cancel out and we are in micrograms per hour.

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So we need the volume term in the numerator, and that's where the 250 milliliters becomes pertinent. So you have 250 milliliters, and in that 250 milliliters you have two grams. So we need to get rid of the micrograms but the micrograms and the grams they are not consistent in terms of the units, so we need to convert the grams to micrograms.

So we'll say one gram. In one gram, we have 1 million micrograms, so now the micrograms can cancel out. And then grams can also cancel out. And so our units is now milliliters per hour. The next step then would be to take all the numbers in the numerator, so you have 10 times 138 times 60 times 250 milliliters times one, and we divide that by everything in the denominator. So we have 2.2 times one hour times two times a million. And when we do the math, that will end up giving us 4.7 milliliters per hour.

So now let's take a look at the second question. And the question says a medication order calls for a heparin drip at 7 microgram per kg per minute for a patient weighing 174 lbs. What should the drip rate (gtt/min) be if the 250 mL infusion bag contains 300 mg of heparin and the administration set delivers 50 drops/mL?

So let's start off once again by analyzing the question. Our goal is to determine the flow rate and the flow rate is in drops per minute.

What we've been given a some kind of a mass rate, which is the seven micrograms per kg per minute, we have the patient weight 174 pounds, we have the volume of the bag that is being infused, and we also have the amount of drug or amount of heparin, that would be in a 250 milliliter bag. We've also been given the drop factor or the calibration factor.

Now for this question, we will need all those values or all that information. And the way we want to set this up is to start off with the mass rate.

So we have seven micrograms per kilogram minute and the goal is to get to drops per minute okay, so we need to get rid of the kilogram in the denominator, and that's based on the weight of the patient.

We take the weight of the patient, in the question it is 174 pounds, the pounds cannot cancel the kilograms. So we need to convert the pounds to kilograms. So 2.2 pounds makes one kilogram and so the pounds cancel out and the kilogram cancels out.

We are now in micrograms per minute, but we need to be in drops per minute. So the next thing that we can really do is we can take the volume of the bag which is 250 milliliters, and from the question we understand that this 250 milliliters contains 300 milligrams of heparin.

Now we have a mass quantity in the denominator which is in milligrams and we have the mass quantity, in the numerator here which is in micrograms, so we need to make sure those units are consistent before they can cancel out. And so we will convert the milligrams to micrograms. One milligram is basically a 1000 microgram, so the milligrams cancel out, and the micrograms can also cancel out.

And so if you notice we are now in milliliters per minute, but we need to be in drops per minute. That's where the calibration factor becomes ultra important. And so we'll take the 50 drops, so let's just say gtt in one milliliter, so now the milliliter can cancel out and now we are in drops per minute.

So at this point, we'll take all the numbers in the numerator, so we'll do seven times 174 times 250 times one times 50 drops, we will divide that by everything that denominator okay, so we have basically the minute times 2.2 times the 300 times a 1000 and if we do the math correctly, we'll end up with 23 drops per minute.

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**IV flow rate calculations** are required when setting up intravenous (IV) infusion for patients and it is extremely important that pharmacists know how to accurately calculate them.

In this blog post, I first provide a succinct overview of the rationale for using intravenous therapy, what the parts of the infusion set are, how IV fluids are delivered and pertinent information about the drop factor. I then show you using step-by-step solutions how to solve six strategically selected IV flow rate example problems.

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Hello everyone, Dr. Danquah here and in this tutorial, we will be taking a look at **IV flow rate calculations**. So, one of the things about IV flow rate calculations, is it occurs with relatively high frequency on the NAPLEX board exam. So that is one reason to really be good at it.

But more importantly, as pharmacists, one of the things we get to do is participate in the preparation and administration of institutional as well as home intravenous infusion therapy. So, it's actually really, really important that we know how to perform these rate of flow calculations.

So, in this tutorial, we want to accomplish two main things. The first thing is to be able to calculate the rate of infusion if the volume of infusion and the time of infusion are known.

And then the second major goal is to calculate the rate of flow for an IV in drops per minute if the calibration of the IV set is known along with the volume of the infusion and the time of the infusion.

So the way the tutorial is structured is, we will go through a brief overview to give some context and then I'll go ahead and provide carefully selected examples on different types of flow rate calculations and the different approaches that you can use to solve them.

If you are already familiar with the concept of infusion therapy, just skip to those examples so that you can have the best use of your time.

So I know some of you are already familiar with intravenous therapy, but for those of us who do not know much about it, I just wanted to provide some brief context so that when we go through the process and the steps of determining rate of flow calculations, you would have a better understanding of what is going on.

You will have a good physical picture and then all the questions that you see would actually make more sense and even the solutions would be easier to understand.

If you walked into an emergency care unit or a hospital, you are more likely to see a patient on a drip.

And one of the reasons why it's such a powerful way to give patients electrolytes, nutrients and medications is because by nature IV's are parenteral preparations so they bypass the G.I. tract, which means that the effect is more immediate and also is 100% bioavailable.

So, to be able to provide the IV therapy to the patient, you need what is known as an infusion or administration set.

Now the infusion set has so many different pieces to it, but for the rate of flow calculations that we're going to be doing. I just wanted to highlight four of the different components which may help us understand the questions better.

So, the first piece really is the IV bag. The IV bag is what houses the fluid that you are going to be giving to the patient and normally you have a base solution like dextrose 5% or normal saline or lactated ringers injection.

You could also have the base solution with the medication. So, whether it's just a base solution by itself or the base solution together with a medication, all of that will be placed in the IV bag. So that's your receptacle.

The next piece of the administration set I want to highlight is the drip chamber. Now the drip chamber lets you know how fast the fluid is actually moving through the tubing into the patient. It gives you an idea of the number of drops in a specified time, normally its number of drops per minute.

The analogy that I normally use is, your drip chamber is analogous to the speedometer of a vehicle which lets you know how fast the car is actually moving.

So, in this scenario, once you have an idea of how fast the fluid is moving through the tubing, you from time to time want to be able to control that flow rate.

There are a number of things that will help us do that. The first one is the slider clamp. Now, the slider clamp is a piece of the administration set which basically completely shuts off the flow. So, once you push it in a certain direction, it will basically completely cut off the flow.

The other piece is the roller clamp. Now, the roller clamp is such that if you moved it in all the way in one direction, you will have basically the fluid flowing uninhibited with no resistance and if you switch it all the way to the other end it will basically cut off the flow.

So somewhere in between those extremes, you could basically adjust it in such a way that you could have the flow rate that you actually desire. The analogy that I normally use is the roller clamp is analogous to the accelerator pedal in the vehicle.

If you stepped all the way down on the pedal, your car is going to go really fast. And if you took your feet off that pedal it’s going to basically come to a halt. And somewhere in between, you could actually determine the speed at which you want your vehicle to move.

That's similar to what the roller clamp actually does in the administration set. So those are the four things I think will be really helpful as we go through the math in terms of determining flow rate calculations. It gives you a very good physical picture of what is

So, once you actually have your IV preparation in the bag, how do you actually get it into the patient? Because if you just lay the fluid in the bag with the administration set simply on the flat surface, nothing is going to flow.

You always need some kind of a pressure gradient to get the fluid into the patient and there are two ways you can deliver the fluid.

The first one is by gravity. If you hang the bag at a certain height above the patient, it's going to actually by gravity have enough pressure gradient to push the fluid into the patient.

Typically, the rule of thumb is you want the bag to be at least three feet about the patient's heart, which is more or less the reference point. If you delivered your IV infusion by gravity, normally the units of the flow rate, there will be in drops per minute (gtt/min).

The other way will be to use an electronic volumetric pump. In this instance, you will basically input the flow rate into the pump and then it will use that mechanical force to basically push the fluid against any internal resistance so that the fluid can get into the patient. In that scenario, normally the flow rate is given as milliliters per hour (mL/h).

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Now, the next term or concept that we want to be familiar with is the drop factor. So, the drop factor refers to the size of the IV tubing and this size actually normally is stated on the IV administration package itself. This is important because you have different tubing size which comes pre-calibrated to give you different types of number of drops per milliliter (drops/mL).

There are two main categories. You have the macro drip and the micro drip. So, the macro drip has a larger drop size and they normally come in 10, 15 or 20 drops per milliliter. In contrast, the micro drip has smaller drop size and that comes calibrated in 60 drops per mL.

Now the microdrip, because it has a smaller drop size is typically used for pediatric situations, or when you have a very potent medication like an anti-cancer drug, because then when you do the rounding off, you don't have too much error unlike the larger drop size. So that will make a lot more sense if we come across some examples in our calculations.

Now let's talk about flow rate or infusion rate. To calculate the flow rate, you need two parameters: volume and time. So, the infusion rate or flow rate is basically the volume of a solution or a drug that is administered over a given or specified time.

The units typically are in milliliters per hour (mL/h) and that's normally associated with when you are using an electronic volumetric pump or in drops per minute (gtt/min) when you are using gravity as your tool to get enough pressure differential to allow the fluid to flow into the patient.

One of the things that you really want to be able to do is actually be able to convert from milliliters per hour to drops per minute and vice versa. So that kind of conversion activity should be something that you do with great facility.

So now let's talk about the various ways in which you can calculate the flow rate and there are three ways. The first one is to do ratio and proportion. The second one is to use the formula method. And the third one is to do dimensional analysis.

Now, you could use whichever method you are most comfortable with. But personally, I do recommend that you use the dimensional analysis. It's one of the most powerful ways to basically solve flow rate calculations. And if you know what you are doing, it is almost impossible to get a question wrong.

So, I'll go ahead and demonstrate how you could use ratio proportion and the formula method to solve flow rate calculations. But I will do the remaining of the examples in this tutorial using dimensional analysis just to let you know how powerful it is and how it could always help you get the answer correct all the time. Okay, so let's take a look at an example where we are using ratio and proportion as an approach to determine the flow rate.

In this example, it says a patient is to receive an IV of 1 liter of Lactated Ringer’s over 8 hours. The IV set to be used is calibrated at 10 drops per mL. (a) What is the flow rate in mL/h? (b) What is the flow rate in drops per minute?

Let's take a look at the solution to part A of the question. Here, the first thing we want to do is to set up the ratio. So, we take the volume, which is a 1000 milliliters and we divide that by the time, which is eight hours. Whenever you have a flow rate, it's volume per time. So that is why we have the 1000 milliliters divided by the eight hours. That is the ratio.

And now we set up a proportion. Because we want the answer in milliliters per hour, you want to find out what the volume will be when you have just one hour. So, we solve for X. X equals a 1000 milliliters times one hour divided by eight hours, and that basically gives you 125 milliliters per hour. So that's the answer to part A.

Now let's take a look at the answer to part B of the question. Same question. So, we had 125 milliliters per hour and we are moving to drops per minute. That means that we need to convert the hour piece to minutes. And that's where you need the conversion factor of one hour being equal to 60 minutes.

So knowing that, the ratio now becomes 125 milliliters divided by 60 minutes and then we set up a proportion to determine how many milliliters will be required in a single minute because we want to arrive at drops per minute eventually.

We solve for X and X is going to be equal to 125 milliliters times one minute divided by 60 Minutes. And that gives us 2.08 milliliters per minute. But we don't stop here. Our goal is to get to drops per minute.

We need an additional step and using the drop factor, we have 10 drops in one milliliter. And so we set up a proportion to figure out how many drops would be needed for the 2.08 milliliters that we just calculated.

So, we solve for this variable again, which is X and X equals 10 drops times the 2.08 milliliters divided by 1 mL and that gives you 20.8 drops per minute or 21 drops per minute. So this is an example where we used a ratio and proportion approach to determine flow rate.

Now let's take a look at how you can use the formula method to determine flow rate as well. The formula is such that your rate of flow, which is in drops per minute, is equal to the volume divided by the time, times the calibration or the drop factor. Okay, so that's the equation that you want to use.

Now let's look at an example. In this particular example, you have an order where you have D5W at 125 milliliters per hour. Your drop factor is 10 drops per mL and you're supposed to calculate the flow rate in drops per minute.

So, we start off with the equation. Remember, we need volume divided by time, times the calibration factor. So, because we want to end up in drops per minute and the original order was milliliters per hour, we want to convert the hour piece to minute.

So, you need a conversion factor where one hour is equal to 60 minutes. If we put all those values into the equation, we will end up with 125 divided by 60 minutes, times the drop factor, which is 10 drops per mL. And when you do the math, you end up with 20.8 drops per minute.

Now, mind you, you can't really give the patient 0.8 of a drop. So, we will normally round up in this instance. And so, you would adjust the roller clamp that we talked about earlier in such a way that you have 21 drops in a minute. So, this is an example of how you can use the formula method to determine the flow rate.

So now let's take a look at how you can use dimensional analysis to determine the flow rate or to do flow rate calculations. And at this point, I'm just going switch screens so that we can have a larger real estate to really explore this approach.

So now let's take a look at example 3, which would be our first example using dimensional analysis as a tool to determine the flow rate.

So this question says a medication order calls for 1000 mL of D_{5}W to be administered over an 8-hour period. Using an IV administration set that delivers 10 drops/mL, how many drops per minute should be delivered to the patient?

Now, this question should look familiar because we used that as our question when we were using the ratio and proportion approach to determine the flow rate.

But here, let's see how the dimensional analysis approach really works? So first of all, we need our volume component, which should be the 1000 milliliters right here, and then we need our time element, which is that eight-hour period.

So, the first thing we'll do is we'll take the 1000 milliliters and we will divide that by the eight hours. So that is basically volume over time, and we want to end up in drops per minute. Which means that eventually the hour term should be converted to minute and the mL should disappear and we should end up with drops.

Now the way we do that, is we take the conversion factor and we will say that since one hour is 60 minutes. We'll put the one hour in the numerator at the top here. And then the 60 minutes in the denominator here.

And we keep track of the units by cancelling out a unit in the numerator with one in the denominator. So, you only cancel out units with one in the numerator, one in the denominator.

If you look at it carefully, we are now in milliliters per minute. So, we don't stop there. We need some conversion factor that will cancel out the milliliters. That means it has to be in the denominator. And then we need the drops units to be the numerator and we find out that the calibration factor or the drop factor would be a good conversion factor to use here.

So, what we'll do is we'll say we have 10 drops in one mL. The milliliters cancel out and now you are in drops per minute. So, the next thing that we need to do is we need to take every number in the numerator so that will be the 1000 times the 10 drops, and we need to divide that by everything in the denominator. So that will be the eight times the 60 minutes.

So, if you did the math, you end up with a 20.8 drops per minute or approximately 21 drops per minute. So, using this approach and being careful in keeping track of the units, I mean there is almost no way you could get this question wrong once you understand what you're doing.

Let's take a look at another example. So, in this question, it says ten (10) milliliters of 10% calcium gluconate injection and 10 mL of multivitamin infusion are mixed with 500 mL of a 5% dextrose injection. The infusion is administered over 5 hours. If the dropper in the venoclysis set calibrates to 15 drop/mL, at what rate, in drops per minute, should flow be adjusted to administer the infusion over the desired time interval?

So here, we want to use the dimensional analysis approach once again. We need to determine what our volume component is to start off with. And so, we have a base solution here, which is 500 milliliters of dextrose 5% injection.

We talked about base solutions earlier and in this particular 500 mL, you are going to be adding 10 milliliters of the multivitamin infusion. But that's not the only thing you are adding, you are also going to add the 10 milliliters of the calcium gluconate as well.

So what that means is your total volume that you are actually going to be giving is going to be equal to that of the base solution, which is the 500 milliliters plus the 10 mL that is coming from the multivitamin plus the 10 milliliters that is coming from the calcium gluconate. So that gives a total of 520 milliliters.

So, this is where, you know, the physical picture that we talked about at the beginning becomes very important. You are adding 10 mL of calcium gluconate and 10 mL of multivitamin into the IV bag. So that's your total volume.

To calculate the flow rate, we need the time component in addition to the volume that we just calculated and the time is given here as five hours.

So, using the dimensional analysis approach, what we will say is we are giving this patient 520 milliliters of fluid over a five hour period and our first task is to get rid of the hour in the denominator. And the way we'll do that is to say that one hour contains 60 minutes.

The hour in the numerator will cancel out the hour and the denominator and we are now essentially in milliliters per minute, but we don't stop there because our ultimate goal is to have the answer in drops per minute.

So, we'll make use of the drop factor, which is 15 drops per mL here. And so, we'll have 15 drops over one milliliter essentially and the milliliters cancel out. And you are basically left with the drops per minute now.

So, the next step will be to take all the numbers in the numerator, we have 520 multiplied by 1 multiplied by 15 drops and then we'll divide that by everything in the denominator. So, we have five times 60 minutes times 1. And so, what we will end up with is 26 drops per minute.

Let's take a look at another example. So in this question, it says an intravenous infusion contains 10 mL of a 1:5000 solution of isoproterenol hydrochloride and 500 mL of a 5% dextrose injection. At what flow rate should the infusion be administered to provide 5 µg of isoproterenol hydrochloride per minute, and what time interval will be necessary for the administration of the entire infusion?

So, at first glance, this question looks really complicated. But let's break it down, look at the various elements and see what the best we will be to solve this problem. First of all, take note that the flow rate is actually in milliliters per minute.

Now the first thing we want to do is keep an eye on the rate that has been given. So, we want to restrict the patient to 5 micrograms of isoproterenol hydrochloride in every single minute. But this quantity is a solid quantity and you are giving it as a fluid. So that means we need the volume element, this 5 micrograms is actually flowing in the fluid.

So that's where the ratio strength that has been given and the volume of the container is also necessary. So, what will happen is we will first determine how much isoproterenol in micrograms is present in the 10 mL, which eventually is placed in the 500 milliliters of 5% dextrose injection.

So, let's see what all of that will look like. What that would mean is for 1:5000, we have one gram of isoproterenol HCl in 5000 milliliters of solution. So, we want to figure out how many grams is actually present in the 10 mL. So, we solve for X.

X is going to be equal to 1 gram times 10 milliliters divided by 5000 mL and that ends up giving us 0.002 grams. But it maybe better to convert that to micrograms since the question told us that we are given 5 micrograms so the units are basically consistent.

So, 1 gram contains a million or 1 x 10^{6} micrograms. So, the grams cancel out and you are basically left with 2000 micrograms. Now what this means is this 2000 micrograms is actually present in the 10 mL, so when you put this 10 mL into the 500 milliliter solution, the 510 milliliter volume contains 2000 micrograms.

So just to reinforce that, keep note that the total volume here is actually the 500 milliliters plus the 10 milliliters. So that gives you 510 mL.

So, what we want to say here is you actually have the 5 micrograms in one minute. But we want to end up in milliliters per minute, so we need some volume component and some other term in the denominator, which would be micrograms. And so that's where this volume right here and the quantity became pertinent.

What we'll see is we now have our volume, which is 510 mL, but that contains 2000 microgram of isoproterenol. So, the micrograms cancel out and just look at that. You are now in milliliters per minute. So, if you did the math correct you end up with about 1.275 milliliters per minute which rounds up to approximately 1.28 milliliters per minute. So that is the first portion that has be completed.

Now the next piece was what will be the time interval? Time interval that will be needed to administer the entire infusion. So that actually is fairly simple. So what we'll do is we'll take the total volume that we calculated, which is the 510 and then we'll take this flow rate and say that you have one minute and each one minute you have 1.28 milliliters.

So, you see how the dimensional analysis really works nicely so that milliliters cancel out. And basically, what you end up having is 398 minutes. Now we can also convert this to hours, and we'll say that 60 minutes is basically one hour. So, the minutes will also cancel out. And so you end up with 6.6 hours.

So that's how you go about solving this particular problem. Like I said, at first glance it looks really complicated but when you break it down, it's super, super easy.

So, let's take a look at another example where we can calculate the flow rate using the dimensional analysis approach, and actually here you have an order.

You have the following order for a patient in the intensive care unit. Calculate the drip rate for this order in mL/h.

So when you take a look at the order, it tells you that you want to infuse that dopamine at 10 micrograms per kilogram minute. Okay. And so, the first thing we can do, because we want to end up in milliliters per hour is to convert the minutes to hours. So, we say 60 minutes is present in one hour. So, the minutes cancel out and we are now in micrograms per kilogram per hour.

What it means is we need to get rid of basically the kilograms and the way to do that will be to make use of the patient's weight. The patient is 175 pounds, the pounds can't cancel the kilograms out. What we want to do is we want to say that you have 2.2 pounds in one kilogram.

So now the pounds do cancel out and the kilogram here will cancel the kilogram here. So always remember, you need the units to be present both in the numerator and the denominator for it to cancel out.

So, if we keep track of the units where we are right now, we are in micrograms per hour, which means we need some quantity that has both a microgram element and a volume element. And that will be from the dopamine. So, what you want to do next is that the order said here 400 milligrams in 250 mL. So, we will take that 250 milliliters and that will contain 400 milligrams.

So, if you are keeping track of units, we are in microgram milliliters per hour per milligram. But which means we need to convert the milligrams to micrograms. So, we have 1 milligram which contains a 1000 micrograms. The milligrams will cancel out and the micrograms will cancel out. So now you are in milliliters per hour.

So the next thing we do is we take everything in the numerator, which will be the 10 times the 60 times the 175 times the 1 times the 250 mL times the 1 and divide that by everything in the denominator, which would be basically 1 times 2.2 times 400 times 1000. And that should be equal to 29.8 milliliters per hour.

So, I hope this video tutorial helped you have a better understanding of how to do IV flow rate calculations. Now, if you wanted to do more practice, you could head over to rxcalculations.com and then you go to the quizzes, start quiz and you could do some of the questions that are there for more practice.

So, if you enjoyed this video, just hit the like button and I'll be making some more videos on IV flow rate calculations. If you want to be in the loop when those are released, just hit the subscribe button as well.

Do you have any questions or strategies on how to solve IV flow rate calculations? Share them in the comments box below.

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If you are a pharmacy student and serious about being successful then you should use these **pharmacy textbooks **in addition** **to those cherished lecture handouts.

In this blog post, I provide a high level summary of the contents of each book and share the pros and cons as well. These are excellent books to own. However, even if you don't want to spend your hard earned money on them, many of the pharmacy textbooks are available on Access Pharmacy. Include them in your study arsenal and take your understanding and performance to the next level.

Here are my top 15 pharmacy textbooks reviewed and rated.

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**Author:** Brian K. Alldredge PharmD , Robin L. Corelli PharmD, Michael E. Ernst PharmD, B. Joseph Guglielmo Jr. PharmD, Pamela A. Jacobson PharmD, Wayne A. Kradjan PharmD, Bradley R. Williams PharmD

**Price:** $59.45

**ISBN:** 9781609137137

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

This book popularly called Koda Kimble consists of 17 sections. Section 1 is a brief explanation of medication therapy management. It also contains the assessment of therapy. Section 2 includes the detailed description of vascular and cardiac disorders. Section 3 focuses on the explanation of pulmonary disorders. Section 4 and section 5 are based on gastrointestinal disorders and renal disorders respectively. Section 6 briefly describes the solid organ transplantation while section 7 deals with the nutrition issues. Similarly, rest of the sections of this book covers different disorders, diseases, and women health issues.

**Pros:**

This book is a useful one for pharmacy students. The book is quite readable and the case-based format is exceptional. It enables the student to learn all the disorders in an effective manner. It can be considered a great resource for a therapeutics course. The book provides great algorithms and references for specific cases. It assists the students in mastering the basics of the drug therapeutics. It allows the students to develop practical skills in problem-solving.

**Cons:**

The case-based format also makes it harder to identify the facts. The book becomes quite difficult to read for the students because of the abundance of the case after case. On the Kindle version of the book, zooming is not enabled which makes it impossible to read on several occasions. The graphics and tables in the book are also unreadable at times.

**Ratings:** 8/10

**Author:** Joseph DiPiro, Robert L. Talbert, Gary Yee, Gary Matzke, Barbara Wells, L. Michael Posey

**Price:** $35.93

**ISBN:** 9780071703543

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

This is one of the best pharmacy books written by Joseph DiPiro *et al*. The book consists of 16 sections. There are many disorders covered in the book. Section 1 revolves around the Bone and Joint disorders while the second section deals with cardiovascular disorders. Section 3, 4 and 5 describe in detail the dermatologic disorders, endocrinologic disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. Section 6 covers the obstetric and gynecologic disorders. Section 8 discusses the infectious diseases in detail. The next sections include the description of other disorders such as respiratory, renal, and urologic disorders.

**Pros: **

One of the best pharmacy books to read; this book by DiPiro is an amazing tool and guide for complex drug therapy administrations for different diseases and disorders. The author has beautifully broken down all the disease states in different components such as guidelines, symptoms, diagnosis and other key points. It is one of the most recommended books by pharmacy school professor because it is easy to read and understand it. It is a perfect resource for pharmacy students.

**Cons:**

The 8^{th} edition of the book does not add much and looks almost identical to the previous edition. A few disorders are discussed in detailed whereas many disease states and disorders are not discussed in enough detail which is a huge flaw in this book. The readings are condensed but with the cutting of essential contents. In different chapters, the information is cluttered.

**Ratings: **9/10

**Author:** Leon Shargel, Andrew Yu, Susanna Wu-Pong

**Price:** $88.78

**ISBN:** 9780071603935

*Summary of Table of Contents:*

It is an incredible book written by Leon Shargel, Andrew Yu and Susanna Wu-Pong. There are 22 chapters in the book with each chapter offering different information. Chapter 1 is the basic introduction of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics. The second chapter discusses the mathematical fundamentals in Pharmacokinetics. The next couple of chapters are based on different models of intravenous Bolus administration. Intravenous infusion is discussed in the fifth chapter. The next few chapters focus significantly on drug clearance and elimination and dosage regimes. Another important chapter is the nonlinear pharmacokinetics. The next section is completely based on the description of biopharmaceutics. The book also includes the relationship between pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.

**Pros:**

It is a comprehensive book on practical and theoretical applications of pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutics and assists in understanding the fundamental concepts of these two subjects. It derives the pharmacokinetic models that describe the processes of drug absorption, metabolism, and elimination. It also critically assesses the biopharmaceutic studies that involve the drug product unequivalency and equivalency. The best thing about this book is that it can help you evaluate and design dosage regimes of drugs.

*Cons:*

The book lacks sufficient clinical and practical examples, and this sometimes makes concepts tougher for pharmacy students to understand. Because of this complexity, this book shouldn’t be the only pharmacokinetics book students use. The part on biopharmaceutics is also less covered in the book.

* Ratings: *8/10

**Author:** Loyd Allen

**Price:** $70.21

**ISBN:** 978081779340

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

The book contains 8 sections and 21 chapters. Section 1 consists of three chapters. It introduces the readers to the drug delivery system and drug dosage forms. It also discusses the drug manufacturing practices. The second section focuses on drug delivery system design and drug dosage form designs. Section 3 completely discusses the solid dosage forms and solid modified drug delivery framework. Sections 5 and 6 of the book contain the description of suppositories, sticks, inserts and liquid dosage forms respectively. In section 7, the author gives an overview of sterile dosage forms and gives an insight on advanced delivery systems and dosage forms in section 8.

**Pros:**

This book allows pharmacy students to master the intricacies of pharmaceutical dosage forms and design. It takes into account CAPE, APhA and NAPLEX competencies. It does an excellent job showing the interrelationships between pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical principles, product design, formulation, manufacture, compounding, and the clinical application of the various dosage forms in patient care, as well as regulations and standards governing the manufacturing and compounding of pharmaceuticals. This new edition also includes a new chapter devoted to clinical pharmaceutics. Each chapter on dosing forms also has two case studies: one clinical and one pharmaceutical to demonstrate pharmaceutical concepts in action. Grouped and individual activities in each chapter allows the pharmacy student to practice what they have studied. The inclusion of the Physical Pharmacy Capsules is an excellent tool to master important underlying pharmaceutical principles. The appendix has also been expanded to include a review of active ingredient considerations in dosing.

**Cons:**

Does not go straight to the point most of the time which could make it difficult for some students to read.

* Ratings: *8/10

**Author:** Pamella S. Ochoa, Jose A. Vega

**Price:** $89.95

**ISBN:** 9781284035728

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

The book has a total of 11 brief chapters. The first chapter is the introduction of parenteral preparations. Chapter 2 deals with the equipment and supplies for administering and compounding sterile preparations. There is brief information provided in the 3^{rd} chapter regarding calculations for the parental compounding. Chapter 4 includes the description of microbiological considerations in the parental compounding. There is an explanation of secondary and primary engineering controls in the fifth chapter. The next two chapters explain the principles of stability and compatibility and compounding manipulations and aseptic techniques. Chapter 8 prepares the pharmacy students for hazardous drugs specifically for parental use. Chapter 10 determines the considerations for intravenous drug therapy in infants and children.

**Pros:**

This is a perfect book which examines the best practices and standards for sterile compounding. It also provides fundamentals of the aseptic technique in an accessible manner to the pharmacy students. This is a great resource which enables the students to review the microbiological considerations and foundational parenteral calculations. It also allows the students to review all the concepts with the assistance of case studies, alerts, and tips etc. This is an easy resource to help student master sterile preparations.

*Cons:*

The book is detailed but lacks brief information in some chapters. In a few parts of the book, the author leaves students confused among the concepts because of the lack of detail provided.

* Ratings: *8/10

**Author:** Patrick M. Malone, Karen L. Kier, John Stanovich Jr. Meghan J. Malone

**Price: **$65.66

**ISBN: **9780071437912

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

There are 24 chapters in this book. The book gives a basic introduction of the drug information in the first chapter. The initial chapters of this book offer detailed information about the drug information resources and drug recommendations. Chapter 4 is the literature evaluation on the drug. Chapter 6 is completely based on the description of the concept of pharmacoeconomics. Chapter 7 provides guidelines on evidence-based clinical practice. There are legal and ethical aspects of drug information practice discussed in the chapters 10 and 11. A few chapters provide fundamental information on medication disadvantages and investigational drugs. There are three chapters that determine the application of drug information in the fields like ambulatory care, educational and training, and community pharmacy practice. The book concludes with instructions on enabling safe medication.

**Pros:**

This book is highly recommended and useful for pharmacy students. The book teaches how to effectively interpret, research, collate, and evaluate drug information. The book addresses several significant issues like ethical and legal considerations of offering drug information.

**Cons:**

The book does not include case studies, tables, and tips etc. which is typical for most books. These assist students in the understanding important concepts. However, they are not provided to a great extent. This raises a few concerns on this book.

** Ratings: **8/10

**Author:** Thomas L Lemke, David A. Williams, Victoria F. Roche, S. William Zito

**Price:** $43.45

**ISBN: **9781609133450

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

There are four parts of this book with 35 complete chapters. Part 1 of the book is the description of the principles of drug discovery. This part has many chapters focusing on drug discovery and drug design. The most significant chapter is believed to be the drug discovery through the inhibition of the enzyme. Part 2 of the book is entitled as “Pharmacodynamic agents.” This part includes the description of drugs that impact the central nervous system. It also explains how the drugs impact the cardiovascular system and hormonal system. The book also explains how drugs impact the immune and inflammation system. The last part of the book is focused on the management of different diseases states.

*Pros:*

It is a concise, clear and understandable book. The 7^{th} edition features updated chapters and information and is well received by the instructors as well as students of pharmacy. The book provides an unparalleled presentation of pharmacodynamic agents, drug discovery, and principles of clinical pharmacy, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. The chapters have been contributed by some of the respected researchers and academicians around the world. The book fulfills all the requirements of the medicinal chemistry.

*Cons:*

The book does not give a comprehensive view of some of the major drug groups. Every chapter does include a general introduction. However, a detailed note is not provided on main subjects of chemical drug classification and characteristics.

** Ratings: **9/10

**Author:** Richard R. Abood

**Price: **$18.13

**ISBN: **9781449640088

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

There are 8 chapters in this book. However, all chapters are brief and detailed. Chapter 1 introduces the readers to the law and legal system. The chapter describes the role of law and different sources of the US law. Chapter 2 determines the legal principles and regulations of the medications. It provides information regarding different legal acts and regulatory authorities such as FDA. Chapter 3 also discusses the federal medication regulations briefly. The fourth chapter is the analysis of the closed framework of substance distribution. Similarly, the next chapter defines dispensing controlled substances. The last few chapters determine state and federal regulations of pharmacy practice. Risk management strategies are also discussed in the final chapter of the book.

*Pros:*

It is one of cheapest pharmacy books available in the market. It updates the pharmacy students to account for new policies and regulatory development. It provides background and history of the law enabling students to learn the facts. It also assists them in applying, critically evaluating, and understanding the legal aspects of pharmacy practice.

*Cons:*

The books content could be a little ambiguous. The law is often unclear specifically when it comes to pharmacy practice laws. The book has lengthy, wordy and confusing content. The author has used difficult words that make things hard to understand. For students, clear content must be provided in the books.

** Rating: **8.5/10

**Author:** Marjorie Canfield Willis

**Price: **$50.00

**ISBN: **9780781792837

*Summary of Table of Contents:*

The second edition of the book contains 15 chapters. The first chapter is the general introduction. Chapter 2 contains the brief description of healthcare records. The next few chapters focus on learning healthcare approaches to different systems including Integumentary System, Musculoskeletal System, Blood and Lymphatic Systems, Cardiovascular System, Respiratory System, Endocrine System, and Nervous System and Psychiatry. The next part of the book determines the healthcare approach to different human body parts. Chapter 10 deals with the ear and 11 deals with the eye. Chapter 12, 13, 14 and 15 includes a brief description of the Gastrointestinal System, Male Reproductive System, Urinary System, and Female Reproductive System respectively.

*Pros:*

The book is a must for pharmacy students. It is well written, easy to understand and uses a self-paced study approach to make learning easier. The book is broken down into self-instructions frames and review frames for significant reinforcement and feedback. Actual medical records and medical record analysis activities are used extensively throughout the book which enriches the learning experience. It also has a variety of learning tools to accommodate a variety of learning styles. Online student tutoring and faculty support service is also available for free with the book.

*Cons:*

Information can sometime be overwhelming for some pharmacy student.

** Ratings: **8/10

**Author:** Patrick R. Murray PhD, Ken S. Rosenthal PhD, Michael A. Pfaller MD

**Price: **$61.83

**ISBN: **9780323086929

*Summary of Table of Contents:*

The book has 7 sections and around 86 chapters. This is a lengthy book by Murray. The first section is the introduction which gives an overview of the medical microbiology. Section II of the book deals with the fundamental principles of laboratory diagnosis. This includes both serologic and molecular diagnoses. The third section determines some basic concepts related to immune response. Section 4 is a detailed note on bacteriology describing the role of bacteria in diseases. Section 5 is another great note on virology. This section describes the role of viruses in the diseases. Similarly, section 6 describes the role of fungi in different diseases. Section 7 determines the role of parasites in the diseases.

*Pros:*

It is a pretty organized book. It is a clearly written and finely broken down book into different sections. The book guides the students with the help of graphs and diagrams. Such a book is always useful for the students. It makes the content easy for the students to understand. The concepts discussed in the book are quite clear and concise. The students may never find it tough to clear their concepts. This is the best edition of the book because of the sufficient details provided in each section.

*Cons:*

There is coverage of basic principles. However, in several sections laboratory diagnoses are not described in detail. It is necessary to describe each aspect in detail. A few chapters of the book are quite brief and detailed while a few miss necessary information.

* Ratings: *8/10

**Author:** Richard Coico, Geoffrey Sunshine

**Price: **$30.00

**ISBN: **9780470081587

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

This wonderful book consists of 20 informative chapters. The entire book is based on the analysis of immunology and the immune system. The first chapter is the basic overview of the immune system. The second chapter identifies the elements of acquired and innate immunity. Chapter 3 defines antigen and immunogens. The next chapter is based on the functions and structure of the antibody. There are a few chapters that revolve around the antibody structure. The book also contains chapters on the biology of T Lymphocyte. The T and B cells are described in detail in some chapters. Chapter 13, 14, and 15 discuss the different types of hypertension. The last few chapters discuss immunization and tumor immunology.

*Pros:*

For the students taking immunology course, this is the best ever book. There is no other book that has discussed the immune system in that deep manner. The author has ensured to discuss every aspect of immunology and immune system. The author also managed to explain the complex things in an easy way. It is one of the textbooks that can be comprehended easily.

*Cons:*

It is believed that this book often seems nothing more than a list of facts. There are limited questions at the end of the chapters.

* Ratings: *7.5/10

**Author: **Richard J. Rossi

**Price: **$108.14

**ISBN: **9780470147641

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

There are 13 chapters in the book with every chapter broken down into some parts. The book starts with the introduction to the biostatistics. The author describes fundamental biostatistical principles. In chapter 2, the author describes the populations. He goes on to random sampling in the third chapter and summarizing them in the fourth. In the fifth chapter, he measures the reliability of statistics. In the next few chapters, he described hypothesis tests, linear regression, multiple regression and logistic regression. Chapter 11 deals with the design of experiments and chapter 12 include analysis of variance. The last chapter includes a discussion on the survival analysis. Hence, the author has included the whole research in the book.

*Pros:*

Applied Biostatistics for Health Sciences is a great resource for the students of pharmacy. It includes a great description of the concept of biostatistics. The author digs down deep in the concept and determined maximum information about this concept. The author seems to have performed great research while writing the book.

*Cons:*

Probably one of the most expensive books, Applied Biostatistics for Health Sciences is quiet dense. Content could be presented in a more student friendly manner to make concepts easier to understand.

** Ratings: **8/10

**Author:** Mosby

**Price: **$49.95

**ISBN:** 9780323320696.

*Summary of Table of Contents:*

The book mainly consists of five chapters. The first chapter is a general introduction of the book and different drugs for the health professions. The second chapter is entitled as A-Z Drug Monographs. This chapter is the most important chapter of the book. It includes the description of the different drugs in detail. Monograph means a detailed study of a single subject. Hence, in this chapter, numerous drugs have been studied in detail. The third part of the book is Appendix. This contains the explanation of the normal laboratory values, FDA pregnancy categories, and English to Spanish drug phrases. The fourth part of the book is Index that includes the bold trade names. The final part is the determination of some commonly used abbreviations.

*Pros:*

Drug Reference for Health Professions is an amazing Pharmacy textbook written by Mosby. It is probably the best drug resource for pharmacy students. It has several previous versions. However, this version appears to be the finest version of them all. The 6^{th} edition has made it quite easier to look up the different drugs that patients have been taking. It has made it easy to understand how such drugs impact the treatment. This edition is edited in a perfect manner for determining which drugs must be excluded, added, and retained. The author has given a detailed description of many drugs. Also, a list of abbreviations that are commonly used is discussed. This makes it an essential book to read for the pharmacy students. Another feature that makes this book commendable is that it gives a quick access to around 700 drug monographs. It is packed with several practical resources for daily use. It can be regarded as a portable drug guide for the students.

**Cons:**

The author claims to have explained A-Z drugs in the book. However, not all the drugs are covered. In addition, there are complex concepts that are harder to understand for some USA Pharmacy school students. The author seems to have not introduced difficult concepts in an easy to understand way. The book is also a little expensive for the student liking. If it becomes hard to understand for a student, it does not worth buying it for that much price.

** Rating: **9/10

**Author:** Sharon Haughey PhD, Roisin O'Hare PharmD

**Price:** $34.99

**ISBN:** 9780702067013

*Summary of Table of Contents:*

Pharmacy OSCEs and Competency-Based Assessments is a book written by Sharon Haughey & Roisin O'Hare. It is the first edition of this book that is well-appreciated by the educators of Pharmacy. The book contains 8 chapters. The First chapter is the Introduction. The second chapter explains the final check on the dispensed medication and introduces the concept of clinical check pre-dispensing. The 3^{rd} chapter determines different ways to respond to counseling and symptoms. The 4^{th} chapter is focused on medication reconciliation. This chapter includes a brief description and brief explanation of the concept of medical reconciliation. Inter and intra professional assessments are covered in chapter 5 of this book. The sixth chapter is focused on the development and enhancement of prescribing skills among the pharmacists. Chapter 7 describes in detail the competency-based assessments. The final chapter of the book includes the description of a variety of ways for dealing with the symptoms in the community pharmacy.

**Pros:**

This book offers a unique resource to support the trainers and students in practicing and developing essential skills. The book is specifically designed for the students, clinical tutors, and the ones engaged in teaching the pharmacy students. The level of difficulty is quite low along with a low price. This book is easy to understand because of the simple description of the complex concepts. The book ensures that the students understand and realize the significance of patient safety. Pharmacy degrees have a significant focus on patient safety. Competency based evaluations of the students of pharmacy using the CRAs and OSCEs has become quite common. This book explains the competency based assessments in a detailed manner and trains the students for integrating their knowledge of pharmaceutics and test their ability to offer effective and safe patient care.

*Cons:*

The book misses some fundamental features. The book lacks the instances or examples of competency based evaluations. The author must have explained some real instances in order to enable the students to evaluate the level of integration among practice and science. The station examples provided in the book are not quite effective in testing the ability to integrate skills and knowledge of the students. Many stations do not offer enough detail which raises question marks on the credibility of the score performance against the model answers provided in the book by the author.

** Rating: **8/10.

**Author:** Karen J. Tietze PharmD

**Price:** $91.95

**ISBN:** 9780323077385

**Summary of Table of Contents:**

Clinical Skills for Pharmacists is an incredible book written by Karen J. Tietze. There are 10 chapters in this book. The first chapter is the general introduction of the clinical pharmacy. The second chapter revolves around the communication skills for the Pharmacists. This chapter emphasizes that the Pharmacists must develop effective communication skills. The chapter also determines the significance of communication in clinical pharmacy. Chapter 3 touches the history of medication while chapter 4 is focused on physical assessment skills. The fourth chapter encourages students to develop physical assessment skills and demonstrates the benefits of establishing such skills. Chapter 5 reviews laboratory and diagnostic tests. The sixth chapter revolves around the patient care presentation. Chapter 7 explains the concept of Therapeutics Planning. There is a great and detailed discussion on the monitoring of drug therapies in chapter 8. The ninth chapter explicates the importance of research for providing drug information. The final chapter is focused heavily on ethics in healthcare and pharmacy. This chapter determines some moral principles that the pharmacists and healthcare providers must follow.

*Pros:*

The book has certain praiseworthy features. First of all, the book covers pertinent clinical skills student pharmacists need to develop. This prepares pharmacy students to be engaged with the patients. It also promotes counseling responsibilities and physical assessment. Another good thing is that learning objectives are mentioned at the start of every chapter. Students get an idea regarding the significant concepts that they must learn from these chapters. At the end of every chapter, self-assessment questions are given. These questions enable the students to evaluate their comprehension of the learning objectives. The book also describes some fundamental skills such as patient case presentation, diagnostic and laboratory information, drug intake monitoring, and therapeutic planning etc. The figures and images given in the book are helpful in illustrating the equipment, techniques, and concepts.

**Cons:**

The price of this book is slightly on the higher side. It lacks a logical organization as the author promotes skills first and then moves to histories. There is no consistent focus on the skills first and then the tests, therapies, and ethics. The final chapter does explain the moral and ethical principles. It does not describe the different codes enforced legally by the US government such as HIPAA.

** Rating: **7/10

So here are my top 15 pharmacy textbooks every serious pharmacy student should own. I did not include any pharmaceutical calculations books in this list since these are already reviewed in my "The Three Best Pharmaceutical Calculations Books" blog post. Do you use any textbooks that have really helped you and is not on the list? Share them in the comments box below.

Converting milliequivalents to milligrams should be straightforward. You know the equation, you can determine valence and molecular weight of compounds, so why do many pharmacy students struggle with milliequivalent calculations even when it is a direct conversion of milliequivalents to milligrams?

In the first Ask Dr. Danquah masterclass, we addressed some of the reasons that cause milliequivalent calculations to be a significant challenge to students. We reviewed key milliequivalent calculations concepts every pharmacy student should know and used carefully selected examples to examine five different ways questions can be asked about milliequivalent calculations.

Some of the example questions discussed involve multiple steps. For example a question could require using a known milliequivalent concentration (mEq/mL) and volume of a salt solution to first determine milliequivalents present and then convert the **milliequivalents to milligrams**.

Below is the recording of Ask. Danquah Masterclass #1: Milliequivalent Calculations Review held on January 29, 2019.

02:18

**How to find milliequivalents when given percentage concentration of compound?**

**Question:** How many milliequivalents of sodium are in 1 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (M.W. = 84).

**Solution:**

11:21

**How to determine quantity in grams given mEq/mL?**

**Question:** A 10 mL vial is labeled potassium chloride (2 mEq/mL). How many grams of potassium chloride are present? (M.W. KCl = 74.5)

**Solution:**

20:42

**How to calculate volume of a salt solution of known concentration to supply a prescribed mEq quantity?**

**Question:** Oral potassium chloride 10% contains 20 mEq of potassium per 15 mL of solution. A patient is prescribed 22 mEq of potassium daily. How many milliliters of potassium chloride 10% will the patient receive each day?

**Solution:**

24:11

**How to determine mEq when given concentration and specified volume of salt solution? **

**Question:** How many milliequivalents of calcium chloride dihydrate (MW=147) are present in 25 mL of 30% w/v calcium chloride dihydrate solution?

**Solution:**

32:20

**How to calculate volume of a salt solution with known concentration required to supply a specified mEq amount? **

**Question:** How many milliequivalents of 3.5% w/v solution of ammonium chloride (MW=53.5) should be given IV to a patient in order to provide 50 mEq?

**Solution:**

Do you have any questions about milliequivalent calculations or tips you want to discuss? Share them in the comments below.

Have you ever asked yourself what must I do to be a successful **pharmacy student**? If the answer is yes, then you are not alone.

Almost every pharmacy student has pondered this question at some point in time.

In fact, we have seen a surge in the number of students who have asked us this very question in recent months.

Normally, we direct students to our blog post on 4 Tips on How to Study in Pharmacy School.

However, academic success is only one component of being a successful pharmacy student and so we share some additional credible advice on other important areas too.

These trusted tips are now available to all in the ebook "104 Tips for Successful Pharmacy Students". Below are 10 trusted tips from the book.

Determine your academic goals before each semester begins. Decide the GPA you want to achieve.

Make a list of all the courses you will be taking and figure out the grades you need for each course to achieve your target GPA.

Plan out what it would take to attain those grades. Be specific. Plan what you would do for each exam, assignment, project etc.

Determine the time and resources it would take to execute your plan. Once your plan is clear, commit to execute it.

The more thorough the planning and execution the easier life would be during the semester.

There is a limited amount of time to study, do your research, head to the labs and enjoy your extracurricular moments. The little time you have should be well utilized so that you do not lag in any area. Having a timetable for your activities is the best way to keep organized.

Taking good notes is necessary for academic success. There are several note-taking systems such as the Cornell, Mapping and Outline methods. However, writing your notes is the best way to ensure comprehension and a good recall.

Studying in a group has several benefits. You can engage in meaningful discussions. It also helps deal with the problem of procrastination.

Moreover, you can have a verbal interchange on some difficult topics to enhance comprehension.

If you are not fully concentrating on your study, there are chances that you do not understand what you are studying.

Find a place where you have little disturbance. You should consider putting the phone on silent mode, switching off the TV, and logging out of social media platforms.

Utilize all the resources available at your disposal. Meet your professor when you have problems with certain areas. Seek additional resources in the library and on the internet in areas where you are weak.

If you study for extended periods without breaks, the chances are that you are going to forget quickly and not grasp key concepts. Take a short break every few hours to refresh and restore mental energy.

Many students pull a nighter just before their exams. Unfortunately, it only puts stress on their brain as they do not retain the concepts.

Avoid cramming by planning your study such that you will have gone through major concepts before the exam time.

Taking a balanced diet is essential for proper brain function and good general health. Cut down on fast foods and sugary edibles as it lowers your mental sharpness.

Learn how to go through large amounts of work and pick important concepts on the go. Start by writing good notes and noting the important concepts as you revise. Skimming helps when you are out of time and need to revise large amounts of work.

So here are the first 10 tips from the ebook "104 Tips for Successful Pharmacy Students". Give them a try. Let us know if you need any help implementing them to achieve your goal of being an accomplished pharmacy student. Do you have any tips of your own? Share them in the comments box below.